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專家答疑解惑:農民所不了解的微生物肥料(圖)

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2015-02-04  來源:中國農村網  瀏覽次數:853457
內容摘要:微生物肥料是新型肥料,要獲得良好效果必需過三關。第一是產品質量關:市場上的微生物肥料產品良莠不齊,購買時要查看產品的有關
             微生物肥料是新型肥料,要獲得良好效果必需過三關。第一是產品質量關:市場上的微生物肥料產品良莠不齊,購買時要查看產品的有關許可認證,必要時可做簡單的對比試驗;第二是運輸保存關:活的微生物才有效。

農民信息網 www.6i47.com QQ圖片20150204094707

      問:某植保站在其試驗田中得出,使用微生物肥料,農藥用量減少20%~30%,瓜菜土傳病害減少30%而產量提高15%~18%;在化肥用量減少40%的情況下,能夠達到同等產量,而且口感大大提升。這樣的數據可信嗎?為什么會有這樣的效果?

  答:這個問題很有代表性,我們需要對微生物肥料有一個客觀全面的認識。微生物肥料的確具有獨特優勢:能促進物質、能量的轉換和循環利用,可以降解廢棄物,提高土壤肥力和活性,改善作物品質,有利于食品安全和環境?;?。但微生物肥料只能在一定程度上減少化肥和農藥的施用,微生物肥料供應的養分有限,即使根瘤菌也只能提供作物所需氮元素的1/3~1/2,不能取代化肥;微生物肥料培肥改土作用需要以豐富的有機質物料為基礎,不能取代大宗農家肥;微生物肥料的植保作用主要是抑制有害病菌,提高作物抗病能力,但對爆發性病蟲害沒有直接的殺滅作用,不能取代農藥。

  所以,對于試驗田數據的真實性和可靠性需要進一步試驗,不能過早下定論,更不能夸大微生物肥料的試驗效果,否則很容易對廣大農民產生誤導。

  問:在實際生產中,有些農民使用了微生物肥料卻沒什么效果。這是為什么?

  答:微生物肥料是新型肥料,要獲得良好效果必需過三關。第一是產品質量關:市場上的微生物肥料產品良莠不齊,購買時要查看產品的有關許可認證,必要時可做簡單的對比試驗;第二是運輸保存關:活的微生物才有效。不能將微生物肥料與化學農藥混放,不能讓陽光長時間直接照射;第三是合理施用關:施用微生物肥料前要仔細閱讀產品使用說明書,施用后要及時總結經驗教訓,不斷提高施用效果。

  問:微生物肥料能控病,還能增產。那么,它到底是肥料,還是農藥?

  答:多數微生物肥料是通過提高作物抗病能力和抑制病菌而在一定程度上防止或減少病蟲害的發生。但它不能直接殺滅病蟲害,因而不是農藥。

  問:專業人士建議,使用微生物肥料需要基層技術人員的宣傳指導。這是說微生物肥料使用操作很復雜嗎?

  答:加強基層技術人員對農民進行微生物肥料的宣傳和技術指導非常必要。這樣做并非是微生物肥料的操作技術有多么復雜,而是因為我國對微生物肥料的開發利用起步較晚,農民對它不像常規化肥那樣熟悉,甚至存在不少認識上的誤區。

  問:業內人士分析,微生物肥料的春天來了。這跟農民有關系嗎?

  答:我國政府現在更加注重生態文明、發展生態農民信息網、強調食品安全,肥料的生產、營銷和施用單位也比以往更加重視微生物肥料的開發和使用。這樣看來,說“微生物肥料的春天來了”是有道理的。但世界公認,當前如果完全不施用化肥和農藥,農作物將減產30%~40%。微生物肥料和化肥、農藥、有機肥還是要配合使用的。

農民信息網  責任編輯:中國農村網,王宇新
 

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