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草魚養殖戶春季魚苗防病要點

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2015-05-05  來源:中國漁業報  瀏覽次數:852642
內容摘要:  五六月份爛鰓、出血等疾病高發,嚴重影響到魚的存活率。因此養殖朋友要及時做好防控工作?! ∧殼?,大部分草魚養殖戶還是以
   五六月份爛鰓、出血等疾病高發,嚴重影響到魚的存活率。因此養殖朋友要及時做好防控工作。

農民信息網 www.6i47.com   目前,大部分草魚養殖戶還是以草料為主,有的一天喂兩遍,有的一天喂三遍,草魚經過一個冬天沒有攝食,本來腸道壁就很薄,現在大量喂草,對于草魚來說無疑是雪上加霜,每天死魚幾條或者是上十條,養殖戶就拼命的下藥,大多數客戶都有這樣的一個觀念,早春死魚,不是蟲就是菌引起的疾病,不是殺蟲就是殺菌,導致的結果就是魚不但沒有好轉,并且死亡量加大,同時伴隨的有其他的并發癥,那么我們該如何正確的認識魚病,該如何解決?

  爛鰓主要分為細菌性爛鰓、蟲引起的爛鰓、水質惡化引起的爛鰓和真菌引起的爛鰓等,最常見的是細菌性爛鰓和蟲引起的爛鰓。

  1.細菌性爛鰓:一般流行于4月~10月,尤以夏季流行為盛,流行水溫15℃~30℃,病魚表現為游動緩慢,體色發黑。發病初期,鰓蓋骨的內表皮往往充血、糜爛,鰓絲腫脹。隨著病程的發展,鰓蓋內表皮腐爛加劇,甚至腐蝕成一圓形不規則的透明小窗,俗稱“開天窗”。鰓線末端嚴重腐爛,呈“掃把樣”,上附有較多污泥和雜物碎屑。鰓嚴重貧血呈白色,或鰓絲紅白相間死亡“花瓣鰓”現象。

  解決方法:渾水和瘦水池塘出現細菌性爛鰓的時候,先進行肥水處理,肥水三天后進行殺菌,最好隔一天再進行一遍,如果水質比較肥,可以直接殺菌,后面根據池塘水質進行適當的調水。

  2.蟲引起的爛鰓:鰓絲明顯浮腫,黏液增多,鰓蓋張開,鰓絲失血或花鰓,魚體反應遲鈍,嚴重時停止進食,最終因呼吸受阻窒息而死。主要在夏秋季節發病,蔓延較快。鏡檢即可觀察到蟲體蠕動。車輪蟲的繁殖以24小時為一周期,針對蟲引起的爛鰓來說,需要通過顯微鏡進行觀察,針對不同的蟲體選擇不同的藥物,車輪蟲一般使用苦參堿或者檳榔堿,連續使用兩次,第一天使用一次,第二天再使用一次,指環蟲一般使用甲苯咪唑進行殺滅指環蟲,或者先用硫酸銅+敵百蟲+硫酸亞鐵進行普殺,然后根據不同的蟲體使用以上藥物進行殺滅。

  注意事項:(1)魚爛鰓嚴重、水體有機質懸浮物多的情況下,直接殺蟲容易引起魚死亡,正確的治療步驟是:先凈水,然后消毒,最后再殺蟲,殺蟲后注意穩水。(2)殺蟲前2天~3天(晴天)每天中午開啟增氧機一個小時,將池塘底部的蟲卵攪到水體的上層,加快其孵化,選擇晴天中午進行殺蟲,潑灑殺蟲藥后開啟兩小時增氧機,把水體攪勻;殺蟲后間隔兩天使用海聯科二氧化氯進行消毒。

  草魚腸炎可分為細菌性腸炎和病毒性腸炎兩種:(1)草魚細菌性腸炎,由細菌引起,病原體是腸型點狀產氣單胞桿菌。該病流行全國各養魚地區,青魚、草魚中非常普遍,特別是當年草魚種和二齡青魚種。發病季節為每年3月~10月,以5月~7月為流行盛期。死亡率很高,其主要癥狀是:病魚行動緩慢,失去食欲,頭部顯得特別黑,出現黑頭黑背,肛門紅腫,輕壓腹部有血黃色粘液流出;把病魚腹部剖開,可見腸道發炎充血,嚴重時腸道發紅或者發紫,腸道韌性比較差,輕拉即斷,輕輕擠壓腸道,會有黃色的膿流出。

  治療方法:停止草料的投喂,進行拌料內服,同時注意水質的調節。

  (2)病毒性腸炎癥狀:腸壁剪開會發現黏液很少,腸壁有時候會有出血點,腸道內有時候會有血液,肛門紅腫,腸道發紅,腸道內沒有食物,沒有膿,腸道的韌性比較大,不容易拉斷,病毒性腸炎可以使用海???3505+板藍息毒敏進行內服,5天為一個療程。

  注意事項:魚病治好之后,建議使用海聯科3103+3505進行拌料內服,恢復魚的體質,做好魚體保健;另外要達到一個好的治療效果,藥物的用量一定要根據池塘中吃食魚的重量來計算藥物的使用量。

  在此提醒養殖戶,最近一段時間天氣反復性比較大,養殖池容易缺氧,水質易惡化,一定要做好增氧和水質調節工作,減少魚的應激反應,避免疾病發生。并且殺蟲藥物要根據防治對象有針對性的選用,不能濫用殺蟲藥,以免刺激魚體,加重病情,外用的消毒藥物必須潑灑均勻,食場周圍和池邊病原菌較多的地方可適當多潑;治療期間及剛治好后不要大量換水、加水及捕魚,以免刺激魚體,引起應激反應加重病情或多病復發。

農民信息網  責任編輯:中國農村網,詹邦洋
 

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