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農業創新商業模式 教你生財之道

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2015-08-24  來源:吾谷網  瀏覽次數:858281
內容摘要:投資農業,會不會設計商業模式,這點非常重要!農業的成功者,往往是商業模式創新的領軍人物。因為農業中各利益相關者特別難搞掂:
 投資農民信息網,會不會設計商業模式,這點非常重要!農業的成功者,往往是商業模式創新的領軍人物。因為農業中各利益相關者特別難搞掂:上游供應商多為高度分散的農民,誠信意識不佳;下游消費者品牌忠誠度低、價格敏感度高。但也有很多成功模式,如農民交易模式、重組輪種模式、同村連坐模式、“利潤鎖定”模式、“建立倉儲基地”模式等。

農民信息網 www.6i47.com   通過以下案例,我們一起來學習這些農業創新商業模式:與農民交易模式

  企業與農民的交易方式通常是在租賃土地后,聘請農戶進行種植或養殖。企業提供種子、化肥、農藥、種畜和飼料等,并簽署“農產品收購協議”以鎖定收購價格,以此與農戶建立起獨家、穩定的供應關系。

  以前由于農產品的價格波動大,農民往往在農產品價格高時,賣給出價更高的買家,而在價格低迷時要求企業履行協議以保證其收益。相關法律手段很難對違約農戶進行有效制約,因此通過商業模式創新,鎖定與農戶的關系顯得尤其關鍵。

  重組輪種模式

  某蔬菜出口企業與農民簽訂“土地租賃”協議,再聘請農民種蔬菜。但農民仍將土地看作是自己的,不僅不按照企業的規范要求,還偷偷將產品出售給其他買家。

  為此,該企業采取的措施是:重新組織,進行輪種。企業將農民從自家土地上調離,一年一換,以強化農民“被雇用”的意識。同時在蔬菜成熟期,組織人手看管和巡邏,并在政府支持下查處并解聘私下出售農產品的農民,以此穩定了供應關系。

  同村連坐模式

  一家水果企業成立農業合作社,組織農民以土地入股,并在設計時有意識地安排農民以“整村建制”的方式加盟,選出該村最有影響力的大戶作為管理者。

  一旦出現農戶偷賣產品的情況,就取消整個村子向企業出售農產品的資格。違約農戶就會被同村人指責。懲罰期過后,企業會允許守約村民以其它形式出售產品給企業,但對違約者的處罰是終身的。

  這種模式在一定程度上穩固了企業與農民的供應關系,但是仍然沒有從利益角度來鎖定關系。

  “利潤鎖定”模式

  在養殖業中,企業通過預先鎖定農戶的利潤來穩定與農戶的合作。許多鴨肉生產企業組織委托農戶進行放養,并提供經濟支持。農戶以“記賬”的形式從公司獲取鴨苗、飼料和藥品。在農戶交付成鴨后,公司按約定的價格收購,扣除相關成本,保證農民的固定利潤,以此實現利益的鎖定。但按只數計算利潤,養殖戶會產生惰性,不重視鴨子的大小,導致企業的邊際效益遞減。

  有一家養殖企業對計價方式進行了改進:根據料肉比(即畜禽每增重1000克所消耗的飼料量)來結算。先根據“料肉比”對同一批交付肉鴨的農戶進行排名,選出排名靠前的70%農戶,并把這批農戶的最后一名作為本批肉鴨的單價。比如,按該農戶的養殖成本加上每只1.5元的利潤,計算出總金額,再拿它除以肉鴨的總重量,得到此批肉鴨的單價。每次核算后將數據公布以示公平,農戶對這種公開公正的結算方式非常滿意。

  而且少數優秀農戶每只鴨子的利潤超過了2元,農戶的積極性就會高漲。

  還有的養殖企業為避免農戶出售產品給第三方,在提供種禽和種畜時,大幅度提高價格,導致農民的成本高于產品的一般市場銷售價格,并在最后結算時保證農民的利潤,這樣減少了農民違約向第三方出售產品的風險。

  這些措施的本質就是加大對農戶違約的經濟和精神懲罰,同時以較穩定的利潤吸引農民,用質量提升下的超產獎勵來激勵農民,通過長期穩定的契約關系來鎖定與農民的合作。

  “建立倉儲基地”模式

  為了應對原材料的價格波動,一些企業在倉儲建設上下功夫,建立保鮮倉儲,以求在農產品低價時收購,高價時出售。但是,倉儲基地的建設成本和運營費用不低。以下這兩家企業的做法值得借鑒。

  某大型農產品深加工企業,其產品主要是鮮玉米食品和飲料系列。它將國家興建的防空設施改造成亞洲最大的冷庫,可儲存玉米2萬噸。這些冷庫能有效對抗玉米價格的波動,運營成本也較為低廉。

  另外一家水果企業則在自建的冷庫周邊,建了普通倉儲和農貿市場,將冷庫業務與商業地產相結合。再通過商業地產項目的收益,低成本擁有了自己的倉儲能力。

  “套期保值”模式

  而一些企業利用“金融工具”對沖,也是一個富于創新的辦法。它們利用期貨市場,實施“套期保值”來規避價格波動風險。只要策略得當,就能夠發揮很好的作用。成熟的企業,必然要介入期貨市場。而傳統的“公司+農戶”模式,將會發展成為“公司+農戶、基地+工廠、期貨+訂單”的新型農業模式。

 
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