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莧菜高產種植技術

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2017-06-04  瀏覽次數:838694
內容摘要:莧菜原產中國、印度及東南亞等地,我國自古就作為野菜食用,在我國的南方各地均有一些品質優、營養高的莧菜品種,因其抗性強、易
 莧菜高產種植技術

農民信息網 www.6i47.com 莧菜原產中國、印度及東南亞等地,我國自古就作為野菜食用,在我國的南方各地均有一些品質優、營養高的莧菜品種,因其抗性強、易生長、耐旱、耐濕、耐高溫,加之病蟲害很少發生,故在國內外都漸漸被人們所認識而得到發展,下面我們就一起來看一看莧菜高產種植技術吧!

莧菜高產種植技術

品種選擇

莧菜種植要根據不同季節品種的習性與消費習慣采用不同品種,冬季、早春采用抗寒能力強的紅莧菜、花紅品種,其它季節采用抗病蟲害性強的花紅莧菜與全綠莧菜。一般在2月下旬至3月下旬宜選用早熟較耐寒的尖葉紅米莧和尖葉花紅莧等品種,4月上旬至5月下旬宜選紅莧、大紅袍和白米莧、柳葉莧等品種,6月上旬至8月上旬夏秋栽培宜選用較耐熱的白米莧、柳葉莧、紅莧等品種。

莧菜高產種植技術

栽培時間

莧菜從春到秋無霜期內都可栽培,露地栽培可從3月下旬至8月上旬播種,而大棚和小拱棚覆蓋栽培可提早播種20~30天,即在2月下旬開始播種,并可提早上市30天左右。除早春栽培外,一般播后35天左右即可上市。

莧菜高產種植技術

播種技術

1、浸種催芽:莧菜種子在涼水中浸種24小時,浸種過程中需搓洗幾遍,以利吸水。在冬季、早春將浸泡過的種子撈出,用清水搓洗干凈,撈出瀝凈水分,用透氣性良好的紗布包好,再用濕毛巾覆蓋,放在15~20℃條件下催芽,當有30~50%的種子露白時即可播種。其它季節采用直接播種的方式栽培。

2、整地施肥:莧菜種植宜選擇雜草少的地塊,雖然莧菜對土壤要求不嚴格,但以土壤疏松、肥沃、保肥保水性能好的土壤為佳,而且莧菜喜歡偏堿性的土壤,每畝施入腐熟有機肥5000公斤,25%復合肥50公斤,精耕細作,做成畦寬1~1.2米,溝寬0.3米,溝深0.15~0.2米的高畦。

3、播種方法:莧菜的種子較小,播種摻些細沙或細土可以使播種均勻,每畝用種量0.25~0.5千克??善狡樅霾セ蛺醪?,撒播的可用四齒耙淺摟或不摟,條播者春季可稍深、夏季宜淺,淺覆土,然后鎮壓,即可澆水,等待出苗。冬季、早春加蓋薄層稻草保濕,再蓋上一層地膜保溫。夏季加蓋防曬網。

莧菜高產種植技術

田間管理

1、溫度管理:莧菜在冬季、早春出苗后揭開地膜和覆蓋物,澆水后在大棚內再建小型拱棚,以利保溫,在外界氣溫較低時于傍晚在小棚上加蓋一層草簾保溫。夏季出苗后,及時加蓋防曬網,采取早蓋晚揭。

2、水分管理:莧菜在冬季、早春要經常保持土壤濕潤,小水勤澆,盡量選擇在晴天上午澆水,并在齊苗后澆施一次0.2%尿素水溶液,以后7~10天追施一次,促進生長。夏季適當加大澆水量,一般在早晨、傍晚澆水。

3、合理追肥:莧菜要進行多次追肥,一般在幼苗有2片真葉時追第1次肥,過10~12天追第2次肥,以后每采收1次追肥1次。肥料種類以氮肥為主,每次每畝可施有稀薄的人糞尿液1500~2000公斤,加入尿素5~10公斤。

莧菜高產種植技術

病蟲防治

1、莧菜白銹?。很炔酥饕『κ前仔獠?,苗期可用75%百菌清可濕性粉劑1000倍液或77%特立克可殺得1500倍液葉噴灑預防,發病初期結合人工摘葉進行藥劑防治,但每次采收后當天不可立即噴藥,以免影響商品質量。

2、莖基腐爛?。菏敵新腫?,在無法實行輪作時收獲后應認真清園,收集病殘物燒毀,隨即翻耕曬土,播前整地時進行土壤消毒(撒毒土或噴淋藥液)。發現病株立即拔除,藥劑可用40%三唑酮多菌靈可濕粉1000倍液。

3、根結線蟲?。褐夭∏棧窈笠笆鼻宄〔刑?,也可與百合科蔬菜進行輪作或水旱輪作。在播種或定植時溝施或穴施10%力螨庫顆粒劑,每公頃用藥75千克。在生長期間也可用甲基異柳磷乳劑200倍液灌根1~2次。

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