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宅基地改革撬動鄉村振興又一支點

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2018-03-27  來源:農民日報  瀏覽次數:823959
內容摘要:厘清人與地的關系始終是農村改革的核心。相比于農村承包地和集體建設用地改革,農民宅基地改革難度更大,各方呼聲也更為迫切。20
 

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厘清人與地的關系始終是農民信息網改革的核心。相比于農村承包地和集體建設用地改革,農民宅基地改革難度更大,各方呼聲也更為迫切。2018年中央一號文件明確提出宅基地實行“所有權、資格權、使用僅”三權分置:完善農民閑置宅基地和閑置農房政策,探索宅基地所有權、資格權、使用權三權分置。改革的方向、路徑已然清晰明確,接下來就是實打實的實施推進。作為農村三塊地中最后一塊地的改革,其意義之深遠重大不言自明,必將成為深化農村改革進程中的又一個重量級標記。

這是一項十分關鍵的改革,不僅在于關系億萬農民的福祉,更在于關涉如何讓鄉村資源配置更合理、更有活力,能夠聚人氣、換新貌、立新業;這也是一項十分艱難的改革,關系農民的安身立命之所,需要審慎地考慮農民的需求和利益分配,需要周密地解決好復雜的矛盾關系,更需要把持振興鄉村的基本方向,讓政策不跑偏、不變調,始終為富農興村的終極目標服務。

宅基地改革何以有如此強力,能夠撬動鄉村振興?各地諸多實踐是有力的證明。在浙江德清縣勞嶺村,“宅改”后村里大量空閑的農房搖身一變,成了高檔鄉村旅游“洋家樂”,引來城里游客觀光住宿,村里產業起來了,人氣旺了,外出打工的村民也回來了,整個村子生機勃勃,又恢復了活力;在江西余江縣,“宅改”前的村莊,閑置農房占四成以上,多年閑置的老房、廢棄的舊房無序散落在村里,連條像樣的路都沒有,“宅改”后的村子煥然一新,一戶一宅,新房整齊排列,道路寬敞平整,全縣騰退出的地用作綠化、復墾以外,還能滿足未來15年新建房需求。

喚醒沉睡的資源,點燃創造財富的激情,從這些宅基地改革的目標取向,從一些試點地區的做法及成效可以看到,在改革過程中,必須通盤考慮整個村子的產業規劃、建設規劃。改革的目的是為了將閑置宅基地利用起來,增加農民的財產性收入,因此需要因地制宜找到適合的產業,建立一套可持續經營的管理體系和利益分配機制。而做好這項工作,需要有能力、有魄力的村干部或農村能人帶動。在試點地區,凡是改得好的村子,都有這樣得力的干部在推動??梢運?,宅基地改革牽一發而動全身,改革改得好,村子美了富了,人才留住了,發展有后勁,這正是一幅產業興旺、生態宜居、生活富裕的鄉村振興圖景。

有人說,宅基地改革是農村最后一塊難啃的硬骨頭。在中國人的觀念里,把房子看得很重,視其為安身立命、頂門立戶的重要象征。在農村,誰要拆人房子,無異于捅馬蜂窩。很多農民寧可房子空閑著,廢棄掉,也不愿人動。哪怕是已經去世的老人廢棄多年的房子,一旦要動,后輩們都站出來反對。而街坊四鄰你家多占一寸、我家少建一尺,多年積累的宅基地矛盾也是改革的巨大阻力。

惟其重要,才更要直面困難,迎難而上。農民的顧慮,根本上還是因為擔心自己的利益受損,無法得到保障。因此,改革要設計出一套有利于激活農民宅基地財產權的切實可行的方案,還要讓農民對改革成果有實實在在的獲得感,才能得到農民的擁護和支持。辦法不是沒有而是很多。有的試點村把空閑宅基地由村集體統一租過來,再轉包出去,由社會資本投資修繕成統一風格的民宿進行經營,鄉村游搞得風生水起,農戶除了租金,還能享受到集體經濟分紅,自己的房子不用花錢就得到了翻新,而且不費任何力氣,村民們都很滿意。而在這個模式中,村集體只需要付給農民部分租金,大頭開支通過引入社會資本來解決,對于大部分沒有經濟實力撬動宅基地改革的村子來說,是個很好的借鑒。

引入社會資本,開辟融資渠道,這是解決改革中資金難題的重要途徑,也是政策鼓勵的方向。但同時,一號文件也提出了改革不能觸碰的政策紅線:在適度放活宅基地和農民房屋使用權的過程中,不得違規違法買賣宅基地,嚴格實行土地用途管制,嚴格禁止下鄉利用農村宅基地建設別墅大院和私人會館。也就是說,宅基地改革必須堅持以振興鄉村為根本方向,在落實宅基地集體所有權、保障宅基地農戶資格權的前提下進行,鼓勵發展讓農村重煥活力的新產業新業態,而不能為少數工商資本侵占,這也最大限度地?;ち伺┟竦娜ɡ?。

農村承包地三權分置,讓農民信息網強了起來;農村集體建設用地激活,讓農村富了起來。接下來,宅基地改革又將激發更大活力,讓農村更美麗宜居,農民更富足安樂,我們應當充分利用這一撬動鄉村振興的機遇,創新機制,找準產業,釋放農村宅基地的巨大潛能,使農村重聚人氣,讓鄉村重煥活力!

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