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防災減災救災是全球永恒主題

放大字體  縮小字體 發布日期:2018-10-19  來源:新華社  瀏覽次數:83534
內容摘要:一部人類發展史,也是一部災害應對史。日本地震、美國颶風、印度尼西亞海嘯、澳大利亞山火地球的各類咆哮,隨時可能搖撼人類社會
        一部人類發展史,也是一部災害應對史。日本地震、美國颶風、印度尼西亞海嘯、澳大利亞山火……地球的各類“咆哮”,隨時可能搖撼人類社會。

農民信息網 www.6i47.com 加強自然災害防治關系國計民生,需要建立高效科學的防治體系,提高全社會防治能力。放眼全球,有值得借鑒的經驗,也有值得吸取的教訓。

預防為先

在自然災害面前,早做準備、加強預防,往往可事半功倍。2005年,美國“卡特里娜”颶風將新奧爾良市80%的地區變為一片“汪洋”,造成1800多人死亡,100多萬人流離失所和巨大財產損失,是美國歷史上最嚴重的一次自然災害。在吸取了“卡特里娜”颶風教訓后,美國近年來面對颶風,提前主動宣傳、組織疏散民眾,在很大程度上減輕了災害造成的損失。

面對地震等自然災害,提前預防的功效也十分明顯。在地震頻發的智利,所有建筑都按抗9級地震設計,盡可能緩沖地震能量,最大限度地保全建筑物;在墨西哥,民防部門要求每棟公共建筑物的樓梯、電梯等位置張貼地震疏散須知,并組織不同的機構和部門每年進行地震疏散演習。

日本的抗震經驗也十分豐富。除了提高建筑物的抗震性能,日本還非常重視在平日里加強防災演習和應急演練。日本的學校都會定期舉行抗震防災演習,告訴學生發生地震、火災后的自救措施。事實證明,這對地震后的應急處置很有幫助。

加強協調

由政府主導建立完善的?;芾硨托骰?,也是自然災害多發國的普遍經驗。比如,日本建立了從中央到地方的?;芾砘?。在中央政府有以首相為首的“中央防災會議”,囊括了全體內閣成員、公共機構代表和學者,負責制定地震防災計劃及實施方案。在重大災害發生后,政府會成立由首相領導的“緊急災害對策本部”,負責指揮救災工作。

智利政府也設有“國家應急辦公室”,負責在自然災害發生后主導并協調救援和疏散等工作。此外,還負責在平日里通過多種方式向民眾普及防災知識,組織發放通俗易懂的防災指南和疏散路線圖等。

災后恢復與重建,也必須是政府主導、多措并舉。比如日本政府會根據受災情況,對災區重建項目實施稅收等方面的優惠政策。

2011年“3·11”大地震后,日本政府認定地震災區巖手縣為“保險、醫療和福利特區”,放寬了在醫院醫生配置和建設康復設施方面的限制,以確保災區的醫療服務;認定宮城縣為“促進民間投資特區”,減免當地汽車和電子零部件等行業稅收,對在受災地區新建工廠的企業5年免稅。

?;饈?/p>

災害無情,對此沒有充分思想準備,甚至抱有僥幸心理,只會導致事態更趨嚴重。這方面,全球也有不少前車之鑒。

以“卡特里娜”颶風為例,美國專家認為,當年颶風來臨時政府和市民都存在僥幸心理,是導致損失慘重的一個重要原因。

“卡特里娜”登陸時,大部分市民抱著僥幸心理躲在家中而不是及時疏散。官方機構盡管發出了警報,但也沒有做好防浪堤被洪水擊破的準備,洪水進入城市后反應遲緩。

城市發展缺乏防災規劃或違反相關規劃,很大程度上也反映了麻痹和僥幸心理。比如,盡管美國有關部門此前在新奧爾良周圍劃定了洪水緩沖帶,不準建設任何項目,但該市在發展中不斷違反這一規定。比如,為發展旅游和商業,該市在海邊建設商業區、休閑觀光區和住宅區,破壞了原本可做緩沖帶的大片灘涂。

從這些例子中可以看到,防患于未然,有效提升防治能力,加強防災意識,才能把災害損失降到最低,才能使人類擁有自我?;さ墓脖玖?。

農民信息網  責任編輯:中國農村網,記者楊駿;華義;錢錚;陳勇;冷彤
 

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